Quels sont les diagnostics obligatoires pour la vente d’un appartement ?
In addition to the administrative documents, the seller is required to carry out several diagnoses to validate the sale of his apartment. A technical diagnostic file or DDT is required, because it certifies the completion of all the findings to be made. Thus, the buyer will benefit from a regulatory apartment in good condition. Discover the mandatory diagnostics to be carried out by the seller.
This is the diagnosis to verify the presence or absence of materials and products containing asbestos. The sale of an apartment necessarily requires the results of this diagnostic if the building permit dates from before July 1997. The verification must be carried out by a certified diagnostician. If asbestos is present, the diagnostician carries out an in-depth risk analysis. The seller may be required to carry out containment work to isolate the asbestos.
It allows to check the electrical installation in its entirety. This involves ensuring the reliability of security systems, in particular:
- circuit breakers;
- the connection with the protection wire
In his report, the professional mentions the presence of defective equipment and those which are in poor condition. These may cause accidents such as electrocution and fire. Not all electricians are qualified to make such a diagnosis. It requires the intervention of a professional who is certified by an organization accredited by Cofrac or the French Accreditation Committee.
The ERP or state of risks and pollution is a diagnosis used to identify the natural and technological risks on housing. Among the natural risks, the best known are avalanches, floods, forest fires. This diagnosis is mandatory if the accommodation is located in a mining, seismic and radon zone.
It is an inspection to check for the presence of termites, not only in the apartment, but also around it. In the event of the presence of termites, the owner must make a declaration to the municipality. The latter may require disinfection. It determines the time to carry out the disinfection so that termites do not proliferate.
Rest assured, because the diagnosis of termites is not destructive. The diagnostician carries out the check on the wooded elements within sight. To do this, he uses an awl to probe the woods.
Diagnosis relating to gas
The installation of faulty gas can cause serious dangers such as fire, explosion or poisoning. Thus, a diagnosis must be established to check the condition of the fixed piping with all its accessories. The diagnostician also checks the gas connection of all the devices concerned. Finally, he proceeds to check the ventilation and aeration.
Only a professional certified by COFRAC can carry out the gas diagnosis. According to article L134-6 of the Construction and Housing Code, all indoor gas installations that were carried out more than 15 years ago require a diagnosis. The inspection is also mandatory for homes whose certificate of conformity was issued more than 15 years ago.
The diagnosis of lead or CREP
The observation of risks of exposure to lead is mandatory if the building permit dates from before January 1 , 1949. This is because lead is prohibited in France. It is a substance causing lead poisoning, poisoning dangerous for children and pregnant women.
When diagnosing, the professional is responsible for identifying the coating (interior or exterior) containing more than 1 mg of lead per cm². It also determines the degradation factors leading to an unsanitary situation.
In the event that the coating is degraded, the owner is required to eliminate the risk of exposure to lead through appropriate work. If the accommodation has a high lead content, renovation work is requested by the prefect.
The State of Airborne Noise Nuisance
This is a diagnosis that must be made in homes exposed to airport noise. It is only since June 1 , 2020 that it has become mandatory. The owner is required to inform himself with the PEB or noise exposure plan. If his property is in an area exposed to airport noise, then a noise diagnosis is mandatory.
The noise pollution, in addition to being disturbing, can be harmful for some people. So, falsifying the noise diagnostic report can cost the owner a fine of 300,000 euros. This can even be added to a 2 year imprisonment.
Mérule diagnosis, what is it?
It is a diagnosis to determine the presence of dry rot which is a wood-eating fungus. It is carried out by a certified diagnostician, a professional who has received training in parasitic diagnosis.
Housing with traces of humidity or with a mushroom smell necessarily contains dry rot. The white traces and the presence of orange dust also signify their presence.
The energy performance diagnosis or DPE
It aims to assess the amount of greenhouse gases and energy of a home. It is a diagnosis that applies to all housing for sale or rent for a period of at least 04 months.
The owner-seller is penalized if he makes a false announcement or if he hires an uncertified diagnostician. It is also sanctioned if the result of the DPE is not sent to the buyer.